Imbalanced urbanisation in Bangladesh: pattern and regional variations

Sadananda Mitra, Jawaharlal Nehru University

The level of urbanization in Bangladesh is still low 23.81 percent (adjusted) in 2001. There was sharp growth during 74-81 period. After that although the level is increasing slowly but the annual exponential growth rate has been declining since 1981 to 2001 from 10.63 to 3.3. Though the urban population shows substantial marked rise during the last two decades even then Bangladesh by and large continues to be predominantly rural country having about 76.19% of its population living in villages. Area expansion is the principal reason for population growth in urban area. The census data shows that urban population variation during 91-2001 was highest in Dhaka division (central part) with 46.26% . On the other hand urban area variation is highest in southern part of the country Barisal, with 23.87%. Among the divisions Sylhet, Rajshahi , and Dhaka are having the urban area variation with (23.83%), (15.61%) and (13.50%) respectively above the national urban area variation (11.85%). Whereas Chittagong and Khulna Divisions show area variation below the national urban area variation (11.85%). Among the Divisions Dhaka , Sylhet and Chittagong are having the urban population variation above the national urban population variation. Whereas Khulna , Rajshahi and Barisal divisions show population variation below the National urban population variation (40.17%). The push factors like natural disasters, slow economic growth, unemployment are the major cause of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh although weak pull factors. To control unplanned urbanization across the country there needs to address the adaptation program, job creation in the rural areas, viz-a-viz good urban governance.

Presented in Poster Session 2